Iridoids: Artemisia (आर्टमिज़ीअ) - Pharmacognosy B Pharmacy 5th Semester

 Iridoids

Generally, Iridoids are known as pseudo-glycoside because it forms on combination of terpenoid and glycoside.

There common variety of animals and dicotyledon plant belonging to family Rubiaceae and Perpherbiaceae.

Some plants belonging to family Scrophulariaceae also contain iridoids.

Mostly all cardiac glycosides are in family Scrophulariaceae.

The Iridoids were named after end of ants from which they were isolated and involved in defensive mechanism of the insects.

Classification of iridoids:

  • Iridoid glycosides
  • Secoiridoid
  • Non-glycosides compounds

Artemisia

Artemisia is is obtained from unexpended plant of Artemisia bravifolia or Artemisia martima.


Old woman, Worm seed, Santonica, Semen sanctum.

Synonyms:

  • Santonica,
  • Semen sanctum,
  • Worm seed,
  • Artemisia  (आर्टमिज़ीअ) - Hindi,

Biological Source:

Artemisia is is obtained from unexpended plant of Artemisia bravifolia or Artemisia martima. Family - Asteraceae.

It should contain not more than 2% of stem and not less than 0.75% of santonin.

Geographical Source:

It can be found in Italy , on the Northern Adriatic coast and also reported in north western India such as Kashmir to Kumaon in Himalayas.

Morphology/Macroscopics Characters:

  • Color: Flowers are Yellow, other parts are whitish-grey
  • Odour: Aromatic and sweet
  • Taste: Bitter and camphorous

Chemical Constituents:

  • Artemisia contain essential oil and two crystalline substance i.e. Santonin and Artemisinin
  • Volatile oil is 1-2% which are cineole, alpha-pinene and resin.
  • Santonin is anhydride of santonic acid.
Artemisinin

Chemical Tests:

  • Alcoholic extract with Sodium hydroxide gives Red color.

Uses:

  • It is act as strong anthelmintic specially for round worm. It has less or no effect on tap worm.
  • It is potent antimalarial and anti-inflammatory.
  • It is used mainly as a tonic to the digestive system, in treating intermittent fevers.
  • Sea wormwood is used domestically.
  • Used as antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Stimulant, vermifuge, Carminative.

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