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Digestive System Anatomy and Physiology Notes (HAP) B.Pharm 2nd Sem

 Digestive System Anatomy and Physiology Notes (HAP) B.Pharm 2nd Sem



Digestive System

Dr. Amit Bhargava


• Phases Include

1. Ingestion

2. Movement

3. Mechanical and Chemical Digestion 4. Absorption

5. Elimination


• Types

– Mechanical (physical)

• Chew

• Tear

• Grind

• Mash

• Mix

– Chemical

• Enzymatic reactions to improve digestion of

– Carbohydrates

– Proteins

– Lipids

Digestive System Organization

• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract

– Tube within a tube

– Direct link/path between organs

– Structures

• Mouth

• Pharynx

• Esophagus

• Stomach

• Small intestine

• Large Intestine

• Rectum



• Teeth mechanically

• Epiglottis is a flap-like break down food into

structure at the back of

small pieces. Tongue

the throat that closes

mixes food with saliva

over the trachea

(contains amylase,

preventing food from

which helps break down

entering it. It is located


in the Pharynx.


• Approximately 20 cm long.

• Functions include:

1. Secrete mucus

2. Moves food from the throat to the stomach using muscle

movement called peristalsis

• If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.


• J-shaped muscular bag that stores the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces.

• Mixes food with Digestive Juices that contain enzymes to break down Proteins and Lipids.

• Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria.

• Food found in the stomach is called Chyme.

• Formation of HCL has already explained in the class


Small Intestine

• Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long

• Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called villi, to increase surface area.

• The villi are covered in microvilli which further increases surface area for absorption.


Small Intestine

• Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.

• Absorbs:

– 80% ingested water

– Vitamins

– Minerals

– Carbohydrates

– Proteins

– Lipids

• Secretes digestive enzymes 9

Large Intestine

• About 1.5 meters long

• Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb

• Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled).

Large Intestine

• Functions

– Bacterial digestion

• Ferment carbohydrates

– Absorbs more water

– Concentrate wastes

Accessory Organs The Glands

• Not part of the path

of food, but play a

critical role.

• Include: Liver, gall

bladder, and



• Directly affects digestion by producing bile

– Bile helps digest fat

• filters out toxins and waste including drugs and alcohol and poisons.


Gall Bladder

• Stores bile from the

liver, releases it into the small intestine.

• Fatty diets can cause



• Produces digestive

enzymes to digest fats,

carbohydrates and


• Regulates blood sugar

by producing insulin

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